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theory of psychology

 Behaviorism Psychology

        The flow of Behaviorism Psychology was first discovered in Russia and developed by John B. Watson, an American psychologist with his paper entitled "Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It" and published in 1913.

        Watson proposed a shift from radical thought to the development of psychology based on consciousness and mental processes. Watson supports observable, visible behavior as the only reasonable subject for psychological science.

        Behaviorism is a school in psychology that only studies real, open behavior that can be measured objectively, this school studies human actions not from consciousness, but only observes actions and behavior that are based on reality.

        Behaviorism psychology emphasizes more on external forces that come from the environment, they argue that humans are flexible victims, can be formed from the environment that determines their behavior.

        Behaviorism views that when humans are born, basically humans do not bring any talent. Humans will develop based on the stimulus received from the surrounding environment. A bad environment will produce bad people, a good environment will produce good people.

According to John B. Watson

        Behaviorism is a school in psychology that only studies real, open behavior that can be measured objectively.

        John B. Watson argues that Behaviorism is a school in psychology whose behavior must be an element of the single subject of psychology. Behaviorism is a revolutionary school, strong and influential, and has deep historical roots. Behaviorism was born as a reaction to introspectionism (which analyzes the human psyche based on subjective reports) and also psychoanalysis (which talks about the invisible subconscious). John conducted experiments on the condition of yoning in children, as a result of Pavlov's influence. using a baby as a test object given a drink from a bottle. Before the bottled drink is given, the bell is rung first, and this is done repeatedly. John's steps came to the conclusion that in babies a conditioned response is formed even though they are not given a drink from a bottle, the baby will still show mouth movements such as squeezing a pacifier from a bottle.

   Psychoanalysis Psychology

        Psychoanalysis is a school of psychology developed by Sigmund Freud, which views humans as living beings based on the work of impulses (id) and views humans as being determined by their past.

        Freud revealed that the only thing that drives human life is the id drive (libido sexuality) and gets a hard challenge. This theory is seen as simplifying the complexities of human life drives. This theory is difficult to explain a person's relationship to self-actualization or also the need for religion. This theory is unable to explain the urge that Muslims have to get the pleasure of Allah SWT. This theory will not be able to explain human needs in Islamic teachings it is believed that humans have a tendency to be religious (fitrah).

          The concept of Psychoanalysis emphasizes the influence of the past so that many people criticize it, because there is pessimism in every effort to develop human self.

        The flow of Humanistic Psychology Abraham H. Maslow and Carl Ransom Rogers highly values ​​personal uniqueness, subjective appreciation, freedom, responsibility, and especially the ability to self-actualize in each individual.

Humanistic psychology

        Humanistic psychology or also known as human psychology is a multifaceted approach to human experience and behavior, which focuses on the uniqueness and self-actualization of human beings.

         For some humanistic psychologists it is an alternative, while for others it is a complement to the traditional emphases of behaviorism and psychoanalysis.

        Humanistic psychology can be understood from three main characteristics, namely, humanistic psychology offers a new value as an approach to understanding human nature and condition. Second, it offers a broad knowledge of the methods of investigation in the field of human behavior.

 Third, it offers a broader method of more effective methods in the implementation of psychotherapy.

         The subject matter of humanistic psychology is the subjective experience of humans, their uniqueness which distinguishes them from animals, while the main areas of interest and research of humanistic psychology are normal and healthy personality, motivation, creativity, human possibilities for growth and how to grow. achieve them, and human values ​​In its study methods, humanistic psychology uses various methods including interviews, life histories, literature, and other creative products.

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